Headache & Migraine

A headache can be the symptom of pain anywhere in the head or neck, and generally, it occurs in migraines, tension-type headaches, or cluster headaches. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, and can be complicated than most of us realize.

Common Causes of a Headache:

Illnesses such as fever, cold or infection



Sleep deprivation

Environment, including strong smells & secondhand tobacco smoke

Effects of medications

Effects of recreational drugs

Head injury

Quick injection of very cold food or beverage

Dental or sinus issues

Gastrointestinal disorders

Types of Headaches

Tension-type headaches


Cluster headaches

Headaches are typically associated with symptoms that include:



Pain in the eyes when looking into bright lights (photophobia)



Tenderness of the scalp

Tightness sensation in the head



A migraine is a neurological disorder involving brain chemicals and nerve pathways, characterized by moderate to severe recurrent headaches on one side of the head. It may last from 2 to 72 hours, associated with symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, and sensitivity to light, sound, and smell.

Even though the exact cause of a migraine is unknown, it is believed to be because of environmental and genetic factors. There are four possible stages to a migraine, however, not all four stages are necessarily experienced:

  • The prodrome (occurs hours or days before a headache)
  • The aura (immediately precedes a headache)
  • The pain phase, also called headache phase
  • The postdrome (the effects experienced after the end of a migraine attack)

Headaches and migraine treatment offered at Harley International Neurology Clinic in Dubai is purely based on the diagnosis, considering the signs and symptoms, as well as the history of the condition. The Specialist Neurologist at the Department of Neurology, Dubai, is an expert in the management of headaches and migraines. The headache and migraine management program provided at our Neurology Clinic is aimed to reduce the frequency and severity of the headache/migraine attacks.



2. Speech and Swallowing Disorders:

The Specialist in Neurology at our Neurology Clinic in Dubai offers expert diagnostic and therapeutic services to people of all age group with problems with speech-language comprehension and production of swallowing function. The comprehensive range of speech and swallowing therapy services provided at Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, include evaluation and treatment of a number of neurological conditions, such as:

  • Stroke
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  • Neuromuscular speech problems due to Multiple Sclerosis & Parkinson’s Disease, as well as other conditions
  • Geriatric-related conditions

Language, speech, and swallowing disorders are usually diagnosed in people with brain injury, stroke, lack of oxygen, congenital disabilities (birth defects), tumours, degenerative neurological diseases, and developmental problems. At Harley International Neurology Clinic, treatment for speech and swallowing disorders is done on the basis of the cause of the condition, and treatment may include medications, special exercises, and certain lifestyle changes.

Common Symptoms of Speech Disorders:

  • Scanning speech (normal speech pattern is disrupted with long pauses between words or syllables)
  • Slurring words (usually happens due to weak tongue, lip, & mouth muscles)
  • Trouble changing tone of voice
  • Nasal-sounding speech

Common Symptoms of Swallowing Disorders:

  • Cough or choke while eating
  • Feel like food is lodged in the throat
  • Frequent lung infections



3. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is an umbrella term for a group or related neurological diseases characterised by the constant tendency for seizers. Epileptic seizers comprise episodes that vary from short and undetectable to prolonged periods of vigorous shakings that may result in severe physical injuries.

Both males and females of all races, age groups, and ethnic backgrounds can develop epilepsy. The symptoms of seizures vary widely, and experiencing a single doesn’t mean that you have epilepsy. In most cases, two to three unprovoked, vigorous seizures are required for an epilepsy diagnosis.


Since epilepsy is caused by abnormal activities of brain functionality, seizures may affect any process the brain coordinates. Common warning signs and symptoms of seizures involve:

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms & legs
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychic symptoms like anxiety, fear & déjà vu

Based on the nature of the abnormal brain activity, seizures are classified into two categories; focal seizures and generalized seizures.

Focal Seizures

When seizures caused by the abnormal activity in one area of the brain, they are called focal seizures.

Generalized Seizures

Seizures caused by the abnormal activities that involve all areas of are called generalized seizures.

At Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, expert treatment for epilepsy is offered by the Specialist Neurologist who is specialised in treating a wide range of neurological disorders. You can consult our Specialist in Neurology and avail epilepsy treatment if any of the following factors occur:


  • Seizure lasts more than five minutes
  • Breathing or consciousness doesn’t return after the seizure stops
  • Second seizure follows immediately
  • Having a high fever
  • Experiencing heat exhaustion
  • You’re pregnant
  • You have diabetes
  • You’ve injured yourself during the seizure


4. Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that can measure and record the electrical activity of a person’s brain. During this test, special sensor named electrodes are attached to the head, and they’re hooked by wires to a computer. The computer records the brain’s electrical activity on the screen, or it may record the activity on paper as wavy lines. Changes from the normal pattern of electrical activity show specific conditions like seizures.

An EEG is one of the major diagnostic tests for detecting epilepsy, and it also plays a great role in diagnosing other brain disorders.

At Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, our specialist neurologist may recommend an ECG to

  • Identify epilepsy & check the type of seizures occurred
  • Examine issues with loss of consciousness or dementia
  • Detect an individual’s chance of getting better after a change in consciousness
  • Study sleep disorders, including narcolepsy
  • Identify if a person has physical problems, including problems in the brain, spinal cord, or nervous system


5. Electromyography (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to evaluate the health of muscles and the nerve cells called motor neurons that control the muscles. Motor neurons transmit electrical signals causing muscles to contract. An EMG can effectively translate these electrical signals into graphs, sounds, or numerical values that a specialist can interpret. An EMG uses tiny devices named electrodes to transmit or detect electrical signals.

The specialist neurologist at Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, may suggest an EMG if a patient has symptoms that indicate a nerve or muscle condition. Such symptoms include:

  • Numbness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Tingling
  • Certain types of limb pain
  • Muscle pain or cramping

EMG results are necessary to help diagnose a range of conditions like:

  • Diseases affecting the connection between the nerve and the muscle
  • Muscle disorders
  • Disorders of nerves outside the spinal cord
  • Disorders that can affect the motor neurons in the brain
  • Diseases that affect the nerve root


6. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test, also called a nerve conduction study (NCS), is a measurement of the speed of conduction of an electrical impulse through a nerve. An NCV test can effectively identify nerve damage and dysfunction.

A person’s peripheral nerves are located outside of the brain and along the spinal cord, and these nerves help control the muscles and experience the senses. Healthy nerves send electrical signals quicker and with greater strength than damaged nerves.

At Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, the neurology doctor suggests an NVC Test to differentiate between an injury to the nerve fiber and an injury to the myelin sheath, the protective covering surrounding the nerve. It will also help the neurologist to identify the difference between a nerve disorder and a disease where a nerve injury has affected the muscles.

At Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, an NCV test is done to diagnose a range of muscular and neuromuscular conditions, including:

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease
  • Herniated disk disease
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy and neuropathy
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Peripheral nerve injury
  • Sciatic nerve problems


7. Treatment for Migraine and Headaches

Generally, migraine and other types of headaches, including a tension headache and sinus headache, are painful. Common symptoms of migraine include a pounding headache, vomiting, nausea, and light sensitivity and it is treated with antinausea drugs and abortive or preventive medicines.

At Harley International Neurology Clinic, Dubai, our specialist neurologist provide expert treatment for headaches and migraines based on accurate diagnosis, considering the symptoms, characteristics, and the history of the condition.

Migraines and headaches can be properly diagnosed if you can tell our specialist neurologist in Dubai the below-mentioned details:

  • How long you have been experiencing a migraine/headache
  • How old you were when you first had a migraine/headache
  • How often does the migraine/headaches occur
  • Do you experience a single type or multiple types of migraines/headaches
  • Family history
  • The symptoms occur between migraine/headache
  • Where the pain is located
  • What time of the day the pain usually occurs

Common symptoms of migraines/headaches:

  • Fever or abnormalities in breathing, pulse, or blood pressure
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Mental confusion & loss of consciousness
  • Excessive fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Muscle weakness, numbness, or tingling
  • Speech difficulties
  • Balance problems & falling
  • Vision changes